Vol 7: Understanding the four types of Artificial Intelligence (AI); classified based on their functionalities.

Hey Friends,

Trust you had a great week?

30 years ago, when people were amazed with the internet, today it has become an integral part of our daily life. AI is gradually reaching that stage, from surfing the web to advancement in medical research and self-driving cars, AI has made our lives easier. As humanity is constantly trying to explore the world of technology, applications of AI is now expanding to almost every possible sector that exists. Superficially, the purpose of an AI system is to tackle complex problems in the same ways we humans do with logic and reasonings.

In today’s letter, we are going to categorize artificial intelligence (AI) into four (4) types based on their functionalities;

  1. Reactive Machines AI

  2. Limited Memory AI

  3. Theory of Mind AI

  4. Self-Aware AI

See also: Types of AI-based on capabilities.

Reactive Machines AI

The most basic form is called Reactive AI because it reacts to existing conditions as its name suggest, these are the oldest forms of AI system that have extremely limited capability, these machines do not have memory-based functionality, this means such machines cannot use previously gained experiences to inform their present actions i.e. these machines cannot “learn.”

In other words, they only function the way they are programmed with a predictable outcome based on the input they receive, so these machines will respond to an identical situation, in the same way, every time. They are unable to learn or conceive of the past or future. They can never surpass their inability to predict future outcomes from the data they are being fed, they can only perform a narrowed range of predefined tasks. An example of Reactive machines AI is the famous IBM chess program that defeated the world champion, Gary Kasparov, in a chess tournament in 1997.

Limited Memory AI

It is characterized by the ability to absorb learning data and improve over time based on an experience similar to the way the neurons in a human brain connect, this is the AI that is widely is use today. Limited memory machines are machines that, in addition to having the capabilities of purely reactive machines, are also capable of learning from historical data to make decisions. Nearly all existing applications that we know of, come under this category of AI.

See also: Artificial Intelligence History, The Technology of the 4th Industrial Revolution.

How does it work?

It helps improve machine decisions by studying the past data from its memory, it has a temporary memory that can be used to store past experiences and hence evaluate your future actions. Self-driving vehicles are examples of limited memory AI, they use data collected in the recent past to make quick immediate decisions. Self-driving vehicles use sensors and cameras to identify civilians crossing the road and traffic signals, they gather all these data’s and use them to make better driving decisions.

As its name suggests, Limited AI is still limited.

See also: AI Winter. How Advanced are we with AI?

Theory of Mind AI

This category is speculated to play a very important role in psychology, this type of AI will mainly focus on emotional intelligence so that humans beliefs and thoughts can be better comprehended by machines. This theory has not been fully developed yet, but the humanoid robot Sofia that was developed by Hong Kong-based company Hanson Robotics in 2016 is showing some progress in this field, Sofia can see emotions and respond appropriately to them, but there is more work to do before AI can be fully emotionally intelligent.

Self-Aware AI

They are the most complex form of AI machines that we can envision and are described by some scientists as the ultimate goal of AI. This is when machines are not only aware of the emotions and mental stage of others but also their own, a stage of AI where machines will have their own consciousness.

When this is achieved, we will have AI that has human-level consciousness and equals human intelligence with the same need desire and emotions. At the moment, these machines have not been developed yet, and we don’t have the hardware or algorithms that will support it, but AI researchers are currently working on enhancing the Limited memory AI and then will work to develop the Theory of mind AI.

Check: What is Net-Zero?

Understanding the variation between the different types of AI will help you make sense of AI advancement as science continues to push the limits. AI is a strong software tool for the future that is here to stay, it can help increase the efficiency with which things are done and vastly improve the decision-making process by analyzing a large amount of data.

I hope you enjoyed learning, to be continued next week.

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Enjoy your weekend!


My Favourite Things This Week

Article- Remi Adeleke shows us what people are capable of achieving when all the odds are stacked against them. His is a story of riches to rags, and then back to riches again. In this interview, he delves into his early life living as Nigerian royalty, to America where he was selling drugs as a teenager in the Bronx to survive, to rising above all statistics to become a Navy SEAL, actor, entrepreneur, writer, and successful husband and father. Click here to learn more about him and listen to his podcast.

Video- Sundar Pichai (CEO of Google) said “anytime we work with technology, we need to harness the benefits while minimizing the downside.” Watch this TEDx speech by Neil Nie to learn more about AI.

Quote of The Week

“The real battle is won in the mind. It’s won by guys who understand their areas of weakness, who sit and think about it, plotting and planning to improve. Attending to the detail. Work on their weaknesses and overcome them. Because they can.”

-Bob Nielsen rtd Navy SEAL.